AQA GCE Biology
- Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi.
- Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.
- The effects of antigenic variability in the influenza virus and other pathogens on immunity.
- The use of vaccines to provide protection for individuals and populations against disease.
- Evaluate the methodology, evidence and data relating to the use of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.
- Discuss the ethical issues associated with the use of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.
- Explain the role of the scientific community in validating new knowledge about vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, thus ensuring integrity.
- Discuss the ways in which society uses scientific knowledge relating to vaccines and monoclonal antibodies to inform decision making.
Edexcel GCE Biology
- Viruses cause disease.
- Why antibiotics are ineffective against viruses.
- Attenuated or dead microorganisms, or isolated antigens, may be used as the basis for vaccines.
- Vaccination leads to active immunity.
- When provided with suitable data, candidates should be able to evaluate evidence relating to the risks and benefits of mass vaccination programmes.
OCR GCE Biology
- The origin of human infectious diseases such as HIV or new strains of influenza.
- Preventive measures include modern vaccines, the differing public attitudes to vaccines in different situations and some of the influences that affect attitudes.
- Viruses are not independent organisms but are packets of genetic information which cannot survive on their own but can invade healthy cells and make them produce healthy copies of the virus, usually killing the cell in the process. The symptoms of a disease are caused by damage to the tissues, by the toxins produced by the microbes or by the immune system itself.
International Baccalaureate Diploma Biology
Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defence against pathogens.
Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.
Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
Explain antibody production.
WJEC GCE Biology
1.2 Cell structure and organisation
(a) The internal membranes of eukaryotic cells and their importance. The structure of the following organelles: mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth); ribosomes; golgi body; lysosomes; centrioles; chloroplasts; vacuoles; nucleus; chromatin; nuclear envelope; nucleolus; plasmodesmata.
The function of these organelles.
Structure of prokaryotic cells and viruses.
Comparison of the structures of eukaryotic cells, animal and plant, prokaryotes and viruses.
SQA Advanced Higher Biology
Microparasites: viruses and bacteria.
Human diseases: influenza, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.
Viral structure and replication. Antigenicity.
About this resource
This resource was first published in ‘Influenza special issue’.