AQA Level 1/2 Certification in preparation for working life
3b. Healthy lifestyles for work-life balance
The risks of excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and drug abuse should be understood and explained in terms of their effect on physical, intellectual, emotional and social health and the subsequent effects on work performance and tenure.
GCE Health and Social Care
1.2 Factors affecting growth and development
You will learn about a range of environmental influences on human growth, development and health and well-being. These include lifestyle factors — such as diet, exercise, use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco smoking.
4.1 Lifestyle choice and life course events
Your learning will focus on the lifestyle choices people make — these will include the diet a person has, the exercise a person takes and the recreational activities they engage in. This might include such aspects as socialising with other people, alcohol use, drug use etc. The examples given are not meant to be an exhaustive list.
WJEC GCE Health and Social Care
6.6 Risk reduction strategies
Candidates need to know, understand and evaluate the strategies used to reduce the risk of developing diseases:
Personal lifestyle choices: eat and exercise sensibly, monitor body weight, limit alcohol consumption, stop smoking or drug use, good personal hygiene, stress management.
National Strategies: anti-smoking initiatives, drink awareness campaigns, 5 a day promotions, STD related campaigns.
Screening tests that may be suitable for the whole population or for specific vulnerable groups – people of a specific age, people with a family history of a particular disease and people employed in hazardous occupations.
11.3 Meeting the needs of individuals
Candidates need to understand how complementary therapies can be used to meet the needs of individuals who may have physical, emotional and/or social conditions including addiction e.g. smoking, alcohol, drugs.
AQA GCE Human Biology
3.4.5 Drugs can affect how we perceive the world around us
Perception and drugs
The functioning of the nervous system to appreciate the processes between sensation, the detection of stimuli, and perception due to processing and interpretation by the brain.
LSD and cocaine affecting the actions of monoamine neurotransmitters; marijuana binding to THC receptors; nicotine binding to nicotinic receptors in the brain and sympathetic ganglia.
Synapses – where neurones communicate
The effect of drugs on synaptic transmission.
OCR GCE Human Biology
5.2.3 Modifying Brain Function
The effects of drugs on brain chemistry are complex. Understanding the effects of drugs helps to shape medical, ethical, legal and social responses to their use and abuse.
(a) define the term drug, with reference to both therapeutic and abusive aspects
(b) describe how drugs can be used to modify brain activity and function, with reference to dopamine for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and diamorphine (heroin) for the relief of severe pain.
(c) outline how opioids mimic the effects of naturally occurring endorphins, with reference to blocking the transmission of pain
(d) discuss the use of cannabis, both therapeutically and recreationally
(e) distinguish between psychological and physical dependency, with reference to heroin and alcohol.
Edexcel GCE Biology A
Topic 8: Grey Matter
8.4 Know the structure and function of synapses in nerve impulse transmission, including the role of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine.
8.9 Understand how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans are used in medical diagnosis and the investigation of brain structure and function.
8.14 Understand how imbalances in certain, naturally occurring brain chemicals can contribute to ill health, including dopamine in Parkinson’s disease and serotonin in depression, and to the development of new drugs.
8.15 Understand the effects of drugs on synaptic transmissions, including the use of L-Dopa in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and the action of MDMA in Ecstasy.
Edexcel GCE Biology B
Topic 9: Control Systems
9.6 Effects of drugs on the nervous system. Understand how the effects of drugs can be caused by their influence on synaptic transmission, including nicotine (mimicking effects of acetylcholine)
WJEC GCE Biology
The nervous system
(l) the effect of chemicals e.g. psychoactive drugs on the transmission of impulses
Scottish Curriculum for Excellence
Health and Well-Being: Substance abuse
I understand the positive effects that some substances can have on the mind and body but I am also aware of the negative and serious physical, mental, emotional, social and legal consequences of the misuse of substances.
Through investigation, I can explain how images of substance use and misuse can influence people’s behaviour.
I am developing a range of skills which can support decision making about substance use. I can demonstrate strategies for making informed choices to maintain and improve my health and wellbeing and can apply these in situations that may be stressful or challenging, or involve peer pressure.
I understand the impact that ongoing misuse of substances can have on a person’s health, future life choices and options.
OCR GCE Biology B
3.2.2 Respiratory diseases and treatment
(a) the short-term and long-term effects of pollutants on the respiratory system. To include tobacco smoke.
5.2.1 The nervous system and the identification and consequences of damage
(i) the use of drugs to modify brain activity and function. To include the therapeutic use of drugs, such as dopamine for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and the effect of heroin, cannabis, methamphetamine and alcohol on synapse activity in the brain.
(j) psychological and physical drug dependency. To include the biological basis of dependency and the consequences of dependency on individuals and society.
International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Biology
Some neurotransmitters excite nerve impulses in postsynaptic neurons and others inhibit them.
Psychoactive drugs affect the brain by either increasing or decreasing postsynaptic transmission.
Stimulant drugs mimic the stimulation provided by the sympathetic nervous system.
Addiction can be affected by genetic predisposition, social environment and dopamine secretion.
Edexcel GCE Psychology
Topic 3: Biological Psychology
3.1.2 The effect of recreational drugs on the transmission process in the central nervous system.
Topic 8: Health Psychology
8.1.1 Issues around drug taking, including addiction, tolerance, physical and psychological dependency, withdrawal.
8.1.2 One biological explanation each for alcohol, heroin and nicotine addiction, including mode of action.
8.1.3 One learning explanation each for alcohol, heroin and nicotine addiction.
8.1.4 Two treatments each for alcohol, heroin and nicotine addiction, including aversion therapy.
8.1.6 Individual differences. Biological and social factors in drug misuse can include effects dependent on differences in the individual, such as personality.
8.1.7 Developmental psychology. Social interactions during development can lead to drug misuse, including learning.
8.2.1 Use of animal laboratory experiments to study drugs.
AQA GCE Psychology
Describing addiction: physical and psychological dependence, tolerance and withdrawal syndrome.
Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers.
Explanations for nicotine addiction: brain neurochemistry, including the role of dopamine, and learning theory as applied to smoking behaviour, including reference to cue reactivity.
Explanations for gambling addiction: learning theory as applied to gambling, including reference to partial and variable reinforcement; cognitive theory as applied to gambling, including reference to cognitive bias.
Reducing addiction: drug therapy; behavioural interventions, including aversion therapy and covert sensitisation; cognitive behaviour therapy.
The application of the following theories of behaviour change to addictive behaviour; the theory of planned behaviour and Prochaska’s six-stage model of behaviour change.
WJEC GCE Psychology
Biological explanations for addictive behaviours, e.g. addiction genes; disease of brain; dopamine.
Social Psycological explanations for addictive behaviours, e.g. co-morbidity with mental illness, peer pressure, role of media.
Methods of modifying addictive behaviour, e.g. aversion therapy.
- Curriculum links for 'Addiction' [XLSX 13KB]
About this resource
This resource was first published in ‘Addiction’.