## Biology

### AQA

Students should be able to:

- use an appropriate number of significant figures
- find arithmetic means
- construct and interpret frequency tables, bar charts and histograms
- understand the principles of sampling as applied to biological data
- distinguish between chance and probability and understand the importance of chance and probability when interpreting data
- understand the terms mean, median and mode and standard deviation
- use a scatter diagram to identify positive and negative correlation between two variables
- select and use a simple statistical test
- analyse and interpret data
- apply elementary statistical analysis to data.

### OCR

**2 Handling data**

(a) Use an appropriate number of significant figures.

(b) Find arithmetic means.

(c) Construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms.

(d) Understand simple probability.

(e) Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data.

(f) Understand the terms mean, median and mode.

(g) Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.

(h) Use a simple statistical test.

(i) Make order of magnitude calculations.

**How science works**

5a Carry out experimental and investigative activities, including appropriate risk management, in a range of contexts.

5b Analyse and interpret data to provide evidence, recognising correlations and causal relationships.

5c Evaluate methodology, evidence and data, and resolve conflicting evidence.

### EDEXCEL

**2 Handling data**

Use an appropriate number of significant figures.

Find arithmetic means.

Construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms.

Understand simple probability.

Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data.

Understand the terms mean, median and mode.

Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.

Use a simple statistical test.

Analyse and interpret data to provide evidence, recognising correlations and causal relationships.

### WJEC

**Handling data**

(a) Use an appropriate number of significant figures.

(b) Find arithmetic means.

(c) Construct and interpret frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms.

(d) Understand simple probability.

(e) Understand the principles of sampling as applied to scientific data.

(f) Understand the terms mean, median and mode.

(g) Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.

(h) Use a simple statistical test.

(i) Make order of magnitude calculations.

**How science works**

Analyse and interpret data to provide evidence, recognising correlations and causal relationships.

### SQA

SQA Advanced Higher Biology

Learners should be able to:

- work with quantitative and qualitative data, discrete and continuous data and sampled data
- deal with experimental data presented in tables, pie and bar charts, line graphs, lines of best fit, graphs with semi-logarithmic scales, graphs with error bars and information presented as box plots
- analyse and interpret typically three interconnected tables, charts, keys, graphs or diagrams or a single source of graphical information with three to four patterns, trends, conditions, variables or sets of results
- deal with statistical concepts such as the mean, range and standard deviation of data and statistically significant differences.

### International Baccalaureate

#### Topic 1: Statistical Analysis

State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data.

Calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of values.

State that the term standard deviation is used to summarise the spread of values around the mean, and that 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean.

Explain how the standard deviation is useful for comparing the means and the spread of data between two or more samples.

Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated values for t and the appropriate tables.

Explain that the existence of a correlation does not establish that there is a causal relationship between two variables.

## Downloadable resources

- Curriculum Links for 'Number Crunching' [XLSX 12KB]

## About this resource

This resource was first published in ‘Number Crunching’.

- Topic:
- Statistics and maths
- Issue:
- Number Crunching
- Education level:
- 16–19