AQA GCE Biology
3.1 Unit 1 BIOL 1: Biology and Disease
3.1.1 Disease may be caused by infectious pathogens or may reflect the effects of lifestyle
Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Disease can result from pathogenic microorganisms penetrating any of an organism’s interfaces with the environment. These interfaces include the digestive and gas-exchange systems. Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.
3.1.6 Principles of immunology
The effects of antigenic variability in the influenza virus and other pathogens on immunity. The use of vaccines to provide protection for individuals and populations against disease.
Edexcel GCE Biology
3.4 Topic 6: Infection, immunity and forensics
10 Describe the major routes pathogens may take when entering the body and explain the role of barriers in protecting the body from infection, including the roles of skin, stomach acid, gut and skin flora.
19 Describe how an understanding of the contributory causes of hospital-acquired infections have led to codes of practice relating to antibiotic prescription and hospital practices relating to infection prevention and control.
OCR GCE Biology
3.2 Unit F212: Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health
Module 2: Food and health
2.2.2 Health and disease
(a) Discuss what is meant by the terms health and disease;
(b) define and discuss the meanings of the terms parasite and pathogen;
(c) describe the causes and means of transmission of malaria, AIDS/HIV and TB (knowledge of the symptoms of these diseases is not required);
(d) discuss the global impact of malaria, AIDS/HIV and TB (HSW4, 6a, 7c);
(l) compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial immunity;
(m) explain how vaccination can control disease (HSW6a, 7c);
(n) discuss the responses of governments and other organisations to the threat of new strains of influenza each year (HSW7b, 7c).
SQA Advanced Higher Biology
Cells and Proteins: Laboratory techniques
Organisms and Evolution
Microparasites: viruses and bacteria. Human diseases: influenza, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Viral structure and replication. Antigenicity. RNA retroviruses and reverse transcriptase.
(vi) Challenges in treatment and control
Treatment and control of parasites. Challenges in the design of vaccines and drugs including rapid antigen change and similarities
International Baccalaureate Diploma Biology
Topic 6: Human Health and Physiology
6.3 Defence against infectious disease
6.3.1 Define pathogen.
6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.
6.3.3 Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defence against pathogens.
6.3.4 Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
6.3.5 Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
6.3.6 Explain antibody production.
6.3.7 Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system.
6.3.8 Discuss the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS.
Topic 11: Human Health and Physiology
11.1 Defence against infectious disease
11.1.6 Explain the principle of vaccination.
11.1.7 Discuss the benefits and dangers of vaccination. The benefits should include total elimination of diseases, prevention of pandemics and epidemics, decreased healthcare costs and prevention of harmful side-effects of diseases.
Option F6: Microbes and Disease
F.6.8 Discuss the origin and epidemiology of one example of a pandemic
About this resource
This resource was first published in ‘Epidemics’.