AQA GCE Biology
3.2 Unit 2: The Variety of Living Organisms
3.2.1 Living organisms vary and this variation is influenced by genetic and environmental factors Investigating variation
Causes of variation.
3.2.3 Similarities and differences in DNA result in genetic diversity
3.2.9 Originally, classification systems were based on observable features but more recent approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms
3.4 Unit 4: Populations and Environment
3.4.8 Genetic variation within a species and geographic isolation lead to the accumulation of different genetic information in populations and the potential formation of new species
Edexcel GCE Biology
Unit 2: Development, Plants and the Environment
2.3 Topic 3: The voice of the genome
Explain how mammalian gametes are specialised for their functions. Explain the role of meiosis in the production of gametes and genetic variation through recombination of alleles and genes including independent assortment and crossing over.
Explain how phenotype is the result of an interaction between genotype and the environment (e.g. animal hair colour, human height, monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and cancers), but that the data on the relative contributions of genes and environment are often difficult to interpret.
OCR GCE Biology
Unit F215: Control, Genomes and Environment
Module 1: Cellular control and variation
5.1.2 Meiosis and variation
Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the behaviour of chromosomes during meiosis, and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope, cell membrane and centrioles.
Use genetic diagrams to solve problems involving sex linkage and codominance.
SQA Higher Biology
DNA and the Genome
WJEC GCE Biology
Unit BY2: Biodiversity and Physiology of Body Systems
2.4 Reproductive strategies
Types of reproduction: Asexual and sexual reproduction in plants and animals. The relative advantages and disadvantages. Males and females produce different sized gametes.
Unit BY5: Environment, Genetics and Evolution
The importance of meiosis and fertilisation in sexual reproduction giving rise to variation.
Random assortment, crossing over and fertilisation as sources of variation.
Alleles as different forms of the same gene.
An understanding of the principles of monohybrid and dihybrid Mendelian inheritance. Chi-squared. Codominance. Linkage. Sex linkage as demonstrated by haemophilia.
5.5 Variation and evolution
Genetic and environmental factors produce variation between individuals. Variation may be continuous and discontinuous; heritable and non-heritable.
International Baccalaureate Diploma Biology
Topic 4: Genetics
4.1 Chromosomes, genes, alleles and mutations
4.3.5 Explain how the sex chromosomes control gender by referring to the inheritance of X and Y chromosomes in humans.
4.3.7 Define sex linkage.
4.3.8 Describe the inheritance of colour blindness and haemophilia as examples of sex linkage.
Topic 5: Ecology and Evolution
5.4.6 Explain how sexual reproduction promotes variation in a species.
Topic 10: Genetics
10.1.3 Explain how meiosis results in an effectively infinite genetic variety in gametes through crossing over in prophase 1 and random orientation in metaphase 1.
About this resource
This resource was first published in ‘Sex and Gender’.