Sex and death
Is illness sex-blind? Sometimes, but there are clear cases of a sex bias
On average, women in the UK can expect to live more than four years longer than men, though they will spend more time in later life in ill health. Such differences in the incidence of disease may reflect the effects of X-linked conditions such as haemophilia, which affects men more than women.
Differing actions of sex hormones may also have a sex-biased effect – for example, women tend to suffer more from weaker bones (osteoporosis) due to low levels of oestrogen after the menopause. Women are also more likely to suffer from the autoimmune disorders lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Sex differences can also be seen in brain and behavioural disorders.
‘Big Picture: Sex and Gender’ (November 2014)
- Sex differences in schizophrenia (2010)
- A fact sheet on asthma, from the NHS
- Gender differences in cancer susceptibility: an inadequately addressed issue (2012)
- Forbes: The gender inequality of suicide – why are men at such high risk?
- NPR: More and more, young women are being diagnosed with ADHD
- Causes and risk factors of testicular cancer
- Ovarian cancer risks and causes
- Breast cancer risk factors
- Eating disorders statistics
- What are the risk factors for developing lupus?
- World Heath Organization: Gender and women’s mental health
- An article on osteoporosis risk factors
- New York Times: Skin cancer on the rise in young women