AQA GCE Biology
3.1 Unit 1 BIOL 1: Biology and Disease
3.1.1 Disease may be caused by infectious pathogens or may reflect the effects of lifestyle.
Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Disease can result from pathogenic microorganisms penetrating any of an organism’s interfaces with the environment. These interfaces include the digestive and gas-exchange systems.
Pathogens cause disease by damaging the cells of the host and by producing toxins.
3.1.4 The lungs of a mammal act as an interface with the environment. Lung function may be affected by pathogens and by factors relating to lifestyle.
The course of infection, symptoms and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis.
The effects of fibrosis, asthma and emphysema on lung function.
Candidates should be able to:
- explain the symptoms of diseases and conditions affecting the lungs in terms of gas exchange and respiration
- interpret data relating to the effects of pollution and smoking on the incidence of lung disease
- analyse and interpret data associated with specific risk factors and the incidence of lung disease
- recognise correlations and causal relationships.
3.1.5 The functioning of the heart plays a central role in the circulation of blood and relates to the level of activity of an individual. Heart disease may be linked to factors affecting lifestyle.
Atheroma as the presence of fatty material within the walls of arteries.
Edexcel GCE Biology
3.1 Topic 1: Lifestyle, Health and Risk
10 Describe the blood clotting process (thromboplastin release, conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin) and its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD).
11 Explain the course of events that leads to atherosclerosis (endothelial damage, inflammatory response, plaque formation, raised blood pressure).
3.4 Topic 6: Infection, Immunity and Forensics
10 Describe the major routes pathogens may take when entering the body and explain the role of barriers in protecting the body from infection, including the roles of skin, stomach acid, gut and skin flora.
11 Explain how bacterial and viral infectious diseases have a sequence of symptoms that may result in death, including the diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
12 Describe the non-specific responses of the body to infection, including inflammation, lysozyme action, interferon and phagocytosis.
13 Explain the roles of antigens and antibodies in the body’s immune response including the involvement of plasma cells, macrophages and antigen-presenting cells.
14 Distinguish between the roles of B cells (including B memory and B effector cells) and T cells (T helper, T killer and T memory cells) in the body’s immune response. Explain how individuals may develop immunity (natural, artificial, active, passive).
16 Discuss how the theory of an ‘evolutionary race’ between pathogens and their hosts is supported by the evasion mechanisms as shown by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB).
18 Distinguish between bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics. Describe how to investigate the effect of different antibiotics on bacteria.
19 Describe how an understanding of the contributory causes of hospital acquired infections have led to codes of practice relating to antibiotic prescription and hospital practice relating to infection prevention and control.
OCR GCE Biology
3.2 Unit F212: Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health
Module 2: Food and Health
2.2.2 Health and Disease
(a) discuss what is meant by the terms health and disease;
(b) define and discuss the meanings of the terms parasite and pathogen;
(c) describe the causes and means of transmission of malaria, AIDS/HIV and TB (knowledge of the symptoms of these diseases is not required);
(d) discuss the global impact of malaria, AIDS/HIV and TB (HSW4, 6a, 7c);
(e) define the terms immune response, antigen and antibody;
(f) describe the primary defences against pathogens and parasites (including skin and mucus membranes) and outline their importance. (No details of skin structure are required);
(g) describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the structure and mode of action of phagocytes;
(h) describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of antibodies;
(i) outline the mode of action of antibodies, with reference to the neutralisation and agglutination of pathogens;
(j) describe the structure and mode of action of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, including the significance of cell signalling and the role of memory cells;
(k) compare and contrast the primary and secondary immune responses;
(l) compare and contrast active, passive, natural and artificial immunity;
(m) explain how vaccination can control disease (HSW6a, 7c);
(n) discuss the responses of governments and other organisations to the threat of new strains of influenza each year (HSW7b, 7c).
WJEC GCE Biology
Unit BY2: Biodiversity and Physiology of Body Systems
2.6 Adaptations for Parasitism
(a) The principles of parasitism as shown by a gut parasite e.g Taenia solium or Echinococcus granulosis.
Unit BY4: Metabolism, Microbiology and Homeostasis
(a) Bacteria may be classified according to their shape and by their reaction to the Gram stain.
(b) Culture of microorganisms in the laboratory. Conditions necessary for growth. Principles of aseptic technique.
(c) Counting microorganisms to monitor population growth, viable count, using serial dilutions, plating and counting colonies.
(d) Principles underlying a simple batch culture fermenter. Industrial application of a batch culture fermenter as exemplified by penicillin production.
SQA Advanced Higher Biology
Cells and Proteins: Laboratory Techniques
(d) Antibody techniques
Detection and identification of specific proteins. Immunoassay techniques use antibodies linked to reporter enzymes. Use of labelled antibodies in protein blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tissue. Creation of monoclonal antibodies.
Organisms and evolution
(iii) Immune response to parasites
Non-specific defences in mammals: physical barriers, chemical secretions, inflammatory response, phagocytes, natural killer cells destroying abnormal cells. Mechanism of specific cellular defences in mammals: apoptosis, phagocytosis, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and immunological memory cells.
(iv) Macroparasitic life cycles
Macroparasites: endoparasitic amoebas, platyhelminths, nematodes. Ectoparasitic arthropods. Ectoparasitic transmission through direct contact, consumption of secondary hosts or endoparasitic transmission by vectors. Schistosomiasis and malaria.
Microparasites: viruses and bacteria. Human diseases: influenza, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.
Viral structure and replication. Antigenicity. RNA retroviruses and reverse transcriptase.
(vi) Challenges in treatment and control
Treatment and control of parasites.
Challenges in the design of vaccines and drugs including rapid antigen change and similarities between host and parasite metabolism.
International Baccalaureate Diploma: Biology
Topic 6: Human Health and Physiology
6.3 Defence against infectious disease
6.3.1 Define pathogen.
6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.
6.3.3 Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defence against pathogens.
6.3.4 Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
6.3.5 Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.
6.3.6 Explain antibody production.
6.3.7 Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system.
6.3.8 Discuss the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS.
About this resource
This resource was first published in ‘Immune System’.